Insights into ageing processes


Ageing is a gradual and progressive deterioration of integrity across the body [1]. With age, wrinkles appear, the stomach sags and the hair goes gray [2]. Increasing age may also mean a higher likelihood of immunosenescence age-related changes to the immune system, less biological reserve, and co-morbidities [3,4]. Since not everyone ages at the same rate, chronological and biological ages may be different [1].


Patients with MS seem to be susceptible to accelerated biological ageing [5-7] and so may be ‘older’ than their years [5]. For instance, a study from Germany found shorter telomere length (a marker of biological ageing)  in people with MS compared with healthy controls across all stages of the disease [5].


Factors that may contribute to this accelerated ageing in MS include:

  • immunosenescence [3,4,6]
  • co-morbidities [8,9]
  • lifestyle factors [10,11].



Lifestyle factors


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