Patients affected by an autoimmune disease appear to be susceptible to premature immune ageing [1]. Hence, immunosenescence may be of particular concern for patients with MS. Immune ageing can be further amplified by some MS therapies, especially those with immunosuppressive properties [1], by the presence of cytomegalovirus (which increases with age; seroprevalence approaches 80% by the age of 70 years in northern Europe) [2] or by undergoing thymectomy during early childhood [3].


With immunosenescence the response to immune challenges, including infections and cancer, declines [4,5].



Figure: The ageing immune system – potential mechanisms involved [1,4-7]

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Immunosenescence: what does it mean? – Expert insights


MS and infections

MS and immunization

Telomere shortening - a marker of cellular senescence


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