Patients affected by an autoimmune disease appear to be susceptible to premature immune ageing . Hence, immunosenescence may be of particular concern for patients with MS. Immune ageing can be further amplified by some MS therapies, especially those with immunosuppressive properties , by the presence of cytomegalovirus (which increases with age; seroprevalence approaches 80% by the age of 70 years in northern Europe)  or by undergoing thymectomy during early childhood .
With immunosenescence the response to immune challenges, including infections and cancer, declines [4,5].
Figure: The ageing immune system – potential mechanisms involved [1,4-7]
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